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The Afro-Peruvian population is concentrated mostly in coastal cities south of Lima, such as those found in the Ica Region, in cities like Cañete, Chincha, Ica, Nazca and Acarí in the border with the Arequipa Region. The African descendants brought their own dances and drumming music style, creating some instruments like the “Cajon” and some culinary art characterized by their delicious taste.
Although Latina women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, they remain an understudied and underserved population. AMIGAS was delivered by Latina health educators to a diverse, predominantly immigrant population of Latina women in the Miami metropolitan area. M. Wingood guided the development of the intervention, analyzed and interpreted the data, and led the writing of the article. DeVarona helped adapt the intervention for Latina women and participated in all aspects of data collection. L. Er directed the study, supervised the acquisition of data, analyzed and interpreted the data, and helped write the article, J.
As Guzman discusses, “signifiers most commonly associated with Latinidad produce a sense of authenticity within media texts”, (p. 235). Ramirez continues to discuss how these signifiers of Latinidad do not necessarily mean they are stereotypical. In actuality, Latina/os may utilize these “signifiers” for self-identifying purposes. In terms of media portrayal, Hollywood has invested a lot of time and money to develop a general notion of “Latinidad” because marketers, advertisers and media content producers have found that they are a very bankable demographic, thus turned “Latinidad” and Latina/o culture and identity to a commodity.
Political activist César Chávez and novelist José Antonio Villarreal are famous Chicanos. In northern New Mexico and southern Colorado, there is a large portion of Hispanics who trace their ancestry to Spanish settlers of the late 16th century through the 17th century. People from this background often self-identify as “Hispanos”, “Spanish” or “Hispanic”. Many of these settlers also intermarried with local Amerindians, creating a Mestizo population. Likewise, southern Louisiana is home to communities of people of Canary Islands descent, known as Isleños, in addition to other people of Spanish ancestry.
For two and a half centuries, between 1565 and 1815, many Filipinos and Mexicans sailed to and from Mexico and the Philippines as sailors, crews, slaves, prisoners, adventurers and soldiers in the Manila-Acapulco Galleon assisting Spain in its trade between Asia and the Americas. Also on these voyages, thousands of Asian individuals were brought to Mexico as slaves and were called “Chino”, which meant Chinese. Although in reality they were of diverse origins, including Japanese, Koreans, Malays, Filipinos, Javanese, Cambodians, Timorese, and people from Bengal, India, Ceylon, Makassar, Tidore, Terenate, and China. A notable example is the story of Catarina de San Juan , an Indian girl captured by the Portuguese and sold into slavery in Manila. She arrived in New Spain and eventually she gave rise to the “China Poblana”.
While many Latina women work outside the home in their countries of origin, their efforts in the U.S. often yield more economic benefits. The Hispanic paradox refers to the medical research indicating that Latino immigrants enter the United States with better health, on average, than the average American citizen, but lose this health benefit the longer they reside in the United States. It is important to note that this health paradox affects both male and female populations of Latinos. Likewise, immigrant Latina women are found to have a lower infant mortality rate than U.S. born women.
The majority of interviews occurred in participants’ homes (69%) or at researchers’ university offices (19%). Interviews were conducted in either Spanish (65%) or English (35%) by eleven trained and supervised female assessors. All but one of the assessors self-identified as Latina and were bilingual in English and Spanish. The non-Latina assessor was Haitian-American and conducted interviews with English-speaking participants. Eight interviewers were master’s-level graduate students, and three were bachelor’s-level students.
Cultural norms, thought to discourage substance use by women, may protect Latinas from substance abuse and dependence by promoting abstinence (Canino, Burnam, Caetano, & Helzer, 1992; Canino, 1994; Welte & Barnes, 1995). The current study similarly found that, on average, Latina adults sporadically used alcohol, marijuana, and sedatives non-medically during a three month time period. While nativity did not directly relate with attributions, women who reported marijuana use endorsed more spiritual attributions when they were foreign born than when they were born in the U.S. Table 3 presents the associations between hypothesized predictors ; interaction terms; and disease, psychosocial, spiritual, and moral/character attribution subscales in the final step of each regression model.
An additional methodological limitation was that our comparison intervention also focused on HIV, rather than serving as a true placebo to guard against Hawthorne effects. Thus, future HIV prevention trials would benefit from inclusion of a time-equivalent comparison condition that focuses on a topic other than HIV prevention but addresses a relevant and important health issue for Latina women. We relied on self-report data, had a relatively short follow-up, were unable to assess condom use by partner type, and lacked objective and quantifiable biological outcomes, such as incident sexually transmitted infections, to assess intervention efficacy. Future trials of HIV interventions conducted with ethnically diverse samples of Latina women would benefit by addressing these limitations. The Latina health educators implemented the AMIGAS curriculum with remarkable fidelity.
In addition to overt wage discrimination, the explained portion of the wage gap is largely caused by structural barriers that reduce Latinas’ expected earnings. The largest explained causes of the white-men-to-Hispanic-women gap include the segregation of Hispanic women into lower-paying occupations and lower-paying industries and the disparity in access to education and skills training for many Hispanic women . Today is Latina Equal Pay Day, the day in 2018 when Hispanic women in the United States have to work to earn as much as white men in the United States earned in 2017 alone. That gap is greater than for black women, who earn 39% less than white men, according to an analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data, and greater than for Native American women, who earn 42% less than white men.
“No respondents over 50 selected the term,” while overall “3% of women and 1% of men selected the term as their preferred ethnic identifier.” The term emerged in response “to circumstances in which existent language structures fail to articulate value in appropriate ways.”
Some famous Hispani and Hispaniensis were the emperors Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, Hadrian, Theodosius I and Magnus Maximus, the poets Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, Martial and Prudentius, the philosophers Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Younger, and the usurper Maximus of Hispania. A number of these men, such as Trajan, Hadrian and others, were in fact descended from Roman colonial families. The term Hispanic derives from Latin Hispanicus, the adjectival derivation of Latin Hispania , ultimately probably of Celtiberian origin. Hispanic culture is a set of customs, traditions, beliefs and art forms which are generally shared by peoples in Hispanic regions, but which can vary considerably from one country or territory to another. The Spanish language is the main cultural element shared by Hispanic peoples.
Latina women earn $549 per week, compared with white women’s median earnings of $718. Latina women make 55 cents to the dollar when compared to white, non-Hispanic males. Latinas hold only 7.4 percent of the degrees earned by women, though they constituted 16 percent of the female population in 2012. Graduation rates for Latinas were at 31.3 percent in 2008, still significantly lower than graduation rates for white women, at 45.8 percent.
The Legislative Day gives participants the opportunity to speak on behalf of their community and educate legislative staff about critical issues affecting families. For many women, this is the very first time that they go to Sacramento and meet with our legislators. MSL values the women’s individual skills and acknowledges the women’s sharing, caring and helping roles in their family and community. Given small sample sizes, the results for Puerto Rican, Cuban, South American, and “other origin” Hispanic women are not statistically significant at a p value of 0.05. Because Hispanic women still face limited benefits in terms of the wage gap for getting a college education after graduating from high school, just encouraging higher education will not resolve the gender wage gap.
The majority of the indigenous population is concentrated in the central-southern and south-eastern states, with the majority of the indigenous population living in rural areas. Some indigenous communities have a degree of autonomy under the legislation of “usos y costumbres”, which allows them to regulate some internal issues under customary law. According to the latest intercensal survey carried out by the Mexican government in 2015, Indigenous people make up 21.5% of Mexico’s population.
Bilingual refers to people who are proficient in both English and Spanish. English-dominant people are more proficient in English than in Spanish. Third and higher generation refers to people born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia with both parents born https://www.pwdthane.org/the-basic-facts-of-latina-girl/ in the 50 states or the District of Columbia. Second generation refers to people born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia with at least one first-generation, or immigrant, parent. The terms Hispanic and Latino are used interchangeably in this report.
¡Avanzando Juntas! Latina Economic Empowerment Program
Non-medical sedative use unexpectedly was positively associated with endorsement of disease model attributions. Sedative abusing women may have a higher awareness of withdrawal syndromes, dependence, and tolerance due the toxic effects of misuse of sedatives (Becker, Fiellin, & Desai, 2007). Such adverse consequences may sedative abusers to view their use in terms of a disease in need of a medical treatment. Furthermore, women more frequently agreed with disease attributions about addiction when they were more proficient in Spanish. Thus, Latinas in the U.S. who have not adopted the receiving culture and who have retained their heritage culture seem to endorse the spiritual and disease models of addiction more than those who do adopt U.S. culture.
The efficacy of AMIGAS may also be partly attributable to inclusion of Latina women and integration of Latina cultural values in all facets of the study, from the conceptualization, adaptation, and implementation of the intervention to the recruitment and retention of participants and study evaluation. The adaptation process remained faithful to the underlying theories and core elements of the original SiSTA intervention.